View.getContext(): Returns the context the view is currently running in. Usually the currently active Activity.
Activity.getApplicationContext(): Returns the context for the entire application (the process all the Activities are running inside of). Use this instead of the current Activity context if you need a context tied to the lifecycle of the entire application, not just the current Activity.
ContextWrapper.getBaseContext(): If you need access to a Context from within another context, you use a ContextWrapper. The Context referred to from inside that ContextWrapper is accessed via getBaseContext().