original source: https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/3.0/ref/applications/#django.apps.AppConfig


(여기 doc에서는 app의 개념이다. 전체구성은 project라한다.)

Django contains a registry of installed applications that stores configuration and provides introspection. It also maintains a list of available models.

This registry is called apps and it’s available in django.apps:

>>> from django.apps import apps
>>> apps.get_app_config(‘admin’).verbose_name ‘Administration’

django는 각각의 설치된 app의 설정들을 apps이라는 registry(목록) 안에 보관하며 이를 통해 introspection이 가능하게 한다. 또한 사용가능한 model들을 관리한다.

Projects and applications

The term project describes a Django web application. The project Python package is defined primarily by a settings module, but it usually contains other things. For example, when you run django-admin startproject mysite you’ll get a mysite project directory that contains a mysite Python package with settings.py, urls.py, asgi.py and wsgi.py. The project package is often extended to include things like fixtures, CSS, and templates which aren’t tied to a particular application.

django-admin startproject 명령을 통해 만들어지는 것이 project이다. 이안에 settings.py, urls.py, asgi.py and wsgi.py. 이 있으며 fixtures, CSS, and templates 들도 포함된다.

A project’s root directory (the one that contains manage.py) is usually the container for all of a project’s applications which aren’t installed separately.

The term application describes a Python package that provides some set of features. Applications may be reused in various projects.

application은 python manage.py startapp 명령을 통해 만들어진다. 

Applications include some combination of models, views, templates, template tags, static files, URLs, middleware, etc. They’re generally wired into projects with the INSTALLED_APPS setting and optionally with other mechanisms such as URLconfs, the MIDDLEWARE setting, or template inheritance.

app은 보통 INSTALLED_APPS에 기입함으로써 프로젝트에 연결된다.

It is important to understand that a Django application is a set of code that interacts with various parts of the framework. There’s no such thing as an Application object. However, there’s a few places where Django needs to interact with installed applications, mainly for configuration and also for introspection. That’s why the application registry maintains metadata in an AppConfig instance for each installed application.

app은 obj로 존재하지 않는다. django가 app과 상호반응해야 하는데(주로 configuration, introspection의 목적으로) 그런 목적으로 apps registry의 AppConfig안에 metadata를 유지한다.  

There’s no restriction that a project package can’t also be considered an application and have models, etc. (which would require adding it to INSTALLED_APPS).

Configuring applications

To configure an application, subclass AppConfig and put the dotted path to that subclass in INSTALLED_APPS.

When INSTALLED_APPS contains the dotted path to an application module, Django checks for a default_app_config variable in that module.

INSTALLED_APPS 안에 . path 형태로 app 의 module경로가 지정되어있는 경우 해당 module의 __init__.py 안의 default_app_config 를 확인하게 된다.

If it’s defined, it’s the dotted path to the AppConfig subclass for that application.

default_app_config 안에는 .  path 형태로 AppConfig 를 implement한 subclass 위치가 지정되어야한다.

If there is no default_app_config, Django uses the base AppConfig class.

default_app_config allows applications that predate Django 1.7 such as django.contrib.admin to opt-in to AppConfig features without requiring users to update their INSTALLED_APPS.

이부분은 정확하게 이해하지는 않았다. 추측해보면 ‘default_app_config 를 설정해서 app을 만든경우 app을 사용하는 다른 사용자(개발자)가 INSTALLED_APPS에 기입하지 않고도 사용가능하다’ 인것 같다.

New applications should avoid default_app_config. Instead they should require the dotted path to the appropriate AppConfig subclass to be configured explicitly in INSTALLED_APPS.

app을 만들 경우 default_app_config 를 설정할 필요는 없으며 보통 INSTALLED_APPS에 AppConfig subclass 까지의 경로를 직접 . path형태로 기입하면 된다.

For application authors

If you’re creating a pluggable app called “Rock ’n’ roll”, here’s how you would provide a proper name for the admin:

# rock_n_roll/apps.py

from django.apps import AppConfig

class RockNRollConfig(AppConfig):
    name = 'rock_n_roll'
    verbose_name = "Rock ’n’ roll"

You can make your application load this AppConfig subclass by default as follows:

# rock_n_roll/__init__.py

default_app_config = 'rock_n_roll.apps.RockNRollConfig'

That will cause RockNRollConfig to be used when INSTALLED_APPS contains 'rock_n_roll'. This allows you to make use of AppConfig features without requiring your users to update their INSTALLED_APPS setting. Besides this use case, it’s best to avoid using default_app_config and instead specify the app config class in INSTALLED_APPS as described next.

Of course, you can also tell your users to put 'rock_n_roll.apps.RockNRollConfig' in their INSTALLED_APPS setting. You can even provide several different AppConfig subclasses with different behaviors and allow your users to choose one via their INSTALLED_APPS setting.

app 개발자는 두가지 선택지를 가진다. 하나는 default_app_config 를 설정함으로써 app의 사용자(다른개발자)가 INSTALLED_APPS에 특별히 기입하지않고도 app을 사용할수 있게 하는 것. 또다른 하나는 INSTALLED_APPS에 AppConfig를 extends한 subclass까지의 경로를 . path형태로 직접 입력하는 것이다. 결과적으로 두가지 방법 모두 AppConfig subclass를 거쳐 가게 된다. 

The recommended convention is to put the configuration class in a submodule of the application called apps. However, this isn’t enforced by Django.

You must include the name attribute for Django to determine which application this configuration applies to. You can define any attributes documented in the AppConfig API reference.


If your code imports the application registry in an application’s __init__.py, the name apps will clash with the apps submodule. The best practice is to move that code to a submodule and import it. A workaround is to import the registry under a different name:

from django.apps import apps as django_apps

For application users

If you’re using “Rock ’n’ roll” in a project called anthology, but you want it to show up as “Jazz Manouche” instead, you can provide your own configuration:

# anthology/apps.py

from rock_n_roll.apps import RockNRollConfig

class JazzManoucheConfig(RockNRollConfig):
    verbose_name = "Jazz Manouche"

# anthology/settings.py

    # ...

Again, defining project-specific configuration classes in a submodule called apps is a convention, not a requirement.

Application configuration




Application configuration objects store metadata for an application. Some attributes can be configured in AppConfig subclasses. Others are set by Django and read-only.

Configurable attributes



Full Python path to the application, e.g. 'django.contrib.admin'.

This attribute defines which application the configuration applies to. It must be set in all AppConfig subclasses.

It must be unique across a Django project.



Short name for the application, e.g. 'admin'

This attribute allows relabeling an application when two applications have conflicting labels. It defaults to the last component of name. It should be a valid Python identifier.

It must be unique across a Django project.



Human-readable name for the application, e.g. “Administration”.

This attribute defaults to label.title().



Filesystem path to the application directory, e.g. '/usr/lib/pythonX.Y/dist-packages/django/contrib/admin'.

In most cases, Django can automatically detect and set this, but you can also provide an explicit override as a class attribute on your AppConfig subclass. In a few situations this is required; for instance if the app package is a namespace package with multiple paths.

Read-only attributes



Root module for the application, e.g. <module 'django.contrib.admin' from 'django/contrib/admin/__init__.py'>.



Module containing the models, e.g. <module 'django.contrib.admin.models' from 'django/contrib/admin/models.py'>.

It may be None if the application doesn’t contain a models module. Note that the database related signals such as pre_migrate and post_migrate are only emitted for applications that have a models module.






Returns an iterable of Model classes for this application.

Requires the app registry to be fully populated.



(model_name, require_ready=True)


Returns the Model with the given model_name. model_name is case-insensitive.

Raises LookupError if no such model exists in this application.

Requires the app registry to be fully populated unless the require_ready argument is set to False. require_ready behaves exactly as in apps.get_model().





Subclasses can override this method to perform initialization tasks such as registering signals. It is called as soon as the registry is fully populated.

Although you can’t import models at the module-level where AppConfig classes are defined, you can import them in ready(), using either an import statement or get_model().

If you’re registering model signals, you can refer to the sender by its string label instead of using the model class itself.


from django.apps import AppConfig
from django.db.models.signals import pre_save

class RockNRollConfig(AppConfig):
    # ...

    def ready(self):
        # importing model classes
        from .models import MyModel  # or...
        MyModel = self.get_model('MyModel')

        # registering signals with the model's string label
        pre_save.connect(receiver, sender='app_label.MyModel')


Although you can access model classes as described above, avoid interacting with the database in your ready() implementation. This includes model methods that execute queries (save(), delete(), manager methods etc.), and also raw SQL queries via django.db.connection. Your ready() method will run during startup of every management command. For example, even though the test database configuration is separate from the production settings, manage.py test would still execute some queries against your production database!


In the usual initialization process, the ready method is only called once by Django. But in some corner cases, particularly in tests which are fiddling with installed applications, ready might be called more than once. In that case, either write idempotent methods, or put a flag on your AppConfig classes to prevent re-running code which should be executed exactly one time.

Namespace packages as apps

Python packages without an __init__.py file are known as “namespace packages” and may be spread across multiple directories at different locations on sys.path (see PEP 420).

Django applications require a single base filesystem path where Django (depending on configuration) will search for templates, static assets, etc. Thus, namespace packages may only be Django applications if one of the following is true:

  1. The namespace package actually has only a single location (i.e. is not spread across more than one directory.)
  2. The AppConfig class used to configure the application has a path class attribute, which is the absolute directory path Django will use as the single base path for the application.

If neither of these conditions is met, Django will raise ImproperlyConfigured.

Application registry


The application registry provides the following public API. Methods that aren’t listed below are considered private and may change without notice.



Boolean attribute that is set to True after the registry is fully populated and all AppConfig.ready() methods are called.




Returns an iterable of AppConfig instances.




Returns an AppConfig for the application with the given app_label. Raises LookupError if no such application exists.




Checks whether an application with the given name exists in the registry. app_name is the full name of the app, e.g. 'django.contrib.admin'.



(app_label, model_name, require_ready=True)

Returns the Model with the given app_label and model_name. As a shortcut, this method also accepts a single argument in the form app_label.model_name. model_name is case-insensitive.

Raises LookupError if no such application or model exists. Raises ValueError when called with a single argument that doesn’t contain exactly one dot.

Requires the app registry to be fully populated unless the require_ready argument is set to False.

Setting require_ready to False allows looking up models while the app registry is being populated, specifically during the second phase where it imports models. Then get_model() has the same effect as importing the model. The main use case is to configure model classes with settings, such as AUTH_USER_MODEL.

When require_ready is False, get_model() returns a model class that may not be fully functional (reverse accessors may be missing, for example) until the app registry is fully populated. For this reason, it’s best to leave require_ready to the default value of True whenever possible.

Initialization process

How applications are loaded

When Django starts, django.setup() is responsible for populating the application registry.




Configures Django by:

  • Loading the settings.
  • Setting up logging.
  • If set_prefix is True, setting the URL resolver script prefix to FORCE_SCRIPT_NAME if defined, or / otherwise.
  • Initializing the application registry.

This function is called automatically:

  • When running an HTTP server via Django’s WSGI support.
  • When invoking a management command.

It must be called explicitly in other cases, for instance in plain Python scripts.

The application registry is initialized in three stages. At each stage, Django processes all applications in the order of INSTALLED_APPS.

First Django imports each item in INSTALLED_APPS.

If it’s an application configuration class, Django imports the root package of the application, defined by its name attribute. If it’s a Python package, Django creates a default application configuration.

At this stage, your code shouldn’t import any models!

In other words, your applications’ root packages and the modules that define your application configuration classes shouldn’t import any models, even indirectly.

Strictly speaking, Django allows importing models once their application configuration is loaded. However, in order to avoid needless constraints on the order of INSTALLED_APPS, it’s strongly recommended not import any models at this stage.

Once this stage completes, APIs that operate on application configurations such as get_app_config() become usable.

Then Django attempts to import the models submodule of each application, if there is one.

You must define or import all models in your application’s models.py or models/__init__.py. Otherwise, the application registry may not be fully populated at this point, which could cause the ORM to malfunction.

Once this stage completes, APIs that operate on models such as get_model() become usable.

Finally Django runs the ready() method of each application configuration.


Here are some common problems that you may encounter during initialization:

AppRegistryNotReady: This happens when importing an application configuration or a models module triggers code that depends on the app registry.

For example, gettext() uses the app registry to look up translation catalogs in applications. To translate at import time, you need gettext_lazy() instead. (Using gettext() would be a bug, because the translation would happen at import time, rather than at each request depending on the active language.)

Executing database queries with the ORM at import time in models modules will also trigger this exception. The ORM cannot function properly until all models are available.

This exception also happens if you forget to call django.setup() in a standalone Python script.

ImportError: cannot import name ... This happens if the import sequence ends up in a loop.

To eliminate such problems, you should minimize dependencies between your models modules and do as little work as possible at import time. To avoid executing code at import time, you can move it into a function and cache its results. The code will be executed when you first need its results. This concept is known as “lazy evaluation”.

django.contrib.admin automatically performs autodiscovery of admin modules in installed applications. To prevent it, change your INSTALLED_APPS to contain 'django.contrib.admin.apps.SimpleAdminConfig' instead of 'django.contrib.admin'.

Swift: Firebase 3 – How to Implement Image Zoom (Ep 19)

my review point is 9/10

https://youtu.be/fo3nSRBWfRA?t=2m15s   add tap gesture recognizer ( userInteractionEnabled , addGestureRecognizer )

https://youtu.be/fo3nSRBWfRA?t=10m26s   superview의 frame 좌표, 크기 

https://youtu.be/fo3nSRBWfRA?t=11m58s   getting present window ( UIApplication.sharedApplication().keyWindow )

https://youtu.be/fo3nSRBWfRA?t=13m50s   image 확대 animation

https://youtu.be/fo3nSRBWfRA?t=18m34s   making backdrop and fading in animation

https://youtu.be/fo3nSRBWfRA?t=21m5s   image fade out animation

https://youtu.be/fo3nSRBWfRA?t=27m25s   remove ui view from super view ( removeFromSuperview )

https://youtu.be/fo3nSRBWfRA?t=28m7s   초기 반응 속도가 빠른 animation ( usingSpringWithDamping )

Programmatically get path to Application Support folder