What does “case” mean without switch statement in Swift?

How case works in if-case

참고자료 : https://medium.com/@abhimuralidharan/enums-in-swift-9d792b728835

Enumeration Syntax

enum SomeEnumeration {
   // enumeration definition goes here

enum CompassPoint {
   case north
   case south
   case east
   case west

Multiple cases can appear on a single line, separated by commas:

enum Planet {
   case mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

Each enumeration definition defines a brand new type. Like other types in Swift, their names (such as CompassPoint and Planet) should start with a capital letter. Give enumeration types singular rather than plural names, so that they read as self-evident:

var directionToHead = CompassPoint.west

The type of directionToHead is inferred when it is initialized with one of the possible values of CompassPoint. Once directionToHead is declared as a CompassPoint, you can set it to a different CompassPoint value using a shorter dot syntax:

directionToHead = .east

Matching Enumeration Values with a Switch Statement

directionToHead = .south
switch directionToHead {
case .north:
   print(“Lots of planets have a north”)
case .south:
   print(“Watch out for penguins”)
case .east:
   print(“Where the sun rises”)
case .west:
   print(“Where the skies are blue”)
// Prints “Watch out for penguins”

As described in Control Flow, a switch statement must be exhaustive when considering an enumeration’s cases. If the case for .west is omitted, this code does not compile.

When it is not appropriate to provide a case for every enumeration case, you can provide a default case to cover any cases that are not addressed explicitly:

let somePlanet = Planet.earth
switch somePlanet {
case .earth:
   print(“Mostly harmless”)
   print(“Not a safe place for humans”)
// Prints “Mostly harmless”

Associated Values

it is sometimes useful to be able to store associated values of other types alongside these case values. 

You can define Swift enumerations to store associated values of any given type, and the value types can be different for each case of the enumeration if needed. 

For example, suppose an inventory tracking system needs to track products by two different types of barcode. Some products are labeled with 1D barcodes in UPC format, which uses the numbers 0 to 9. Each barcode has a “number system” digit, followed by five “manufacturer code” digits and five “product code” digits. These are followed by a “check” digit to verify that the code has been scanned correctly:

Other products are labeled with 2D barcodes in QR code format, which can use any ISO 8859-1 character and can encode a string up to 2,953 characters long:

It would be convenient for an inventory tracking system to be able to store UPC barcodes as a tuple of four integers, and QR code barcodes as a string of any length.

enum Barcode {
   case upc(Int, Int, Int, Int)
   case qrCode(String)

This can be read as:

“Define an enumeration type called Barcode, which can take either a value of upc with an associated value of type (Int, Int, Int, Int), or a value of qrCode with an associated value of type String.”

This definition does not provide any actual Int or String values—it just defines the type of associated values that Barcode constants and variables can store when they are equal to Barcode.upc or Barcode.qrCode.

New barcodes can then be created using either type:

var productBarcode = Barcode.upc(8, 85909, 51226, 3)

productBarcode = .qrCode(“ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP”)

At this point, the original Barcode.upc and its integer values are replaced by the new Barcode.qrCode and its string value. Constants and variables of type Barcode can store either a .upc or a .qrCode (together with their associated values), but they can only store one of them at any given time.

The different barcode types can be checked using a switch statement, as before. This time, however, the associated values can be extracted as part of the switch statement. You extract each associated value as a constant (with the let prefix) or a variable (with the var prefix) for use within the switch case’s body:

switch productBarcode {
case .upc(let numberSystem, let manufacturer, let product, let check):
   print(“UPC: (numberSystem), (manufacturer), (product), (check).”)
case .qrCode(let productCode):
   print(“QR code: (productCode).”)
// Prints “QR code: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP.”

If all of the associated values for an enumeration case are extracted as constants, or if all are extracted as variables, you can place a single var or let annotation before the case name, for brevity:

switch productBarcode {
case let .upc(numberSystem, manufacturer, product, check):
   print(“UPC : (numberSystem), (manufacturer), (product), (check).”)
case let .qrCode(productCode):
   print(“QR code: (productCode).”)
// Prints “QR code: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP.”

Raw Values

As an alternative to associated values, enumeration cases can come prepopulated with default values (called raw values), which are all of the same type.

enum ASCIIControlCharacter: Character {
   case tab = “t”
   case lineFeed = “n”
   case carriageReturn = “r”

Raw values can be strings, characters, or any of the integer or floating-point number types. Each raw value must be unique within its enumeration declaration.


Raw values are not the same as associated values. Raw values are set to prepopulated values when you first define the enumeration in your code, like the three ASCII codes above. The raw value for a particular enumeration case is always the same. Associated values are set when you create a new constant or variable based on one of the enumeration’s cases, and can be different each time you do so.

Implicitly Assigned Raw Values

enum Planet: Int {
   case mercury = 1, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

let earthsOrder = Planet.earth.rawValue
// earthsOrder is 3
let sunsetDirection = CompassPoint.west.rawValue
// sunsetDirection is “west”

Initializing from a Raw Value

If you define an enumeration with a raw-value type, the enumeration automatically receives an initializer that takes a value of the raw value’s type (as a parameter called rawValue) and returns either an enumeration case or nil. You can use this initializer to try to create a new instance of the enumeration.

This example identifies Uranus from its raw value of 7:

let possiblePlanet = Planet(rawValue: 7)
// possiblePlanet is of type Planet? and equals Planet.uranus

Not all possible Int values will find a matching planet, however. Because of this, the raw value initializer always returns an optional enumeration case. In the example above, possiblePlanet is of type Planet?, or “optional Planet.”


The raw value initializer is a failable initializer, because not every raw value will return an enumeration case. For more information, see Failable Initializers.

If you try to find a planet with a position of 11, the optional Planet value returned by the raw value initializer will be nil:

let positionToFind = 11
if let somePlanet = Planet(rawValue: positionToFind) {
   switch somePlanet {
   case .earth:
       print(“Mostly harmless”)
       print(“Not a safe place for humans”)
} else {
   print(“There isn’t a planet at position (positionToFind)”)
// Prints “There isn’t a planet at position 11”

This example uses optional binding to try to access a planet with a raw value of 11. The statement if let somePlanet = Planet(rawValue: 11) creates an optional Planet, and sets somePlanet to the value of that optional Planet if it can be retrieved. In this case, it is not possible to retrieve a planet with a position of 11, and so the else branch is executed instead.

Recursive Enumerations

A recursive enumeration is an enumeration that has another instance of the enumeration as the associated value for one or more of the enumeration cases. You indicate that an enumeration case is recursive by writing indirect before it, which tells the compiler to insert the necessary layer of indirection.

For example, here is an enumeration that stores simple arithmetic expressions:

enum ArithmeticExpression {
   case number(Int)
   indirect case addition(ArithmeticExpression, ArithmeticExpression)
   indirect case multiplication(ArithmeticExpression, ArithmeticExpression)

You can also write indirect before the beginning of the enumeration to enable indirection for all of the enumeration’s cases that have an associated value:

indirect enum ArithmeticExpression {
   case number(Int)
   case addition(ArithmeticExpression, ArithmeticExpression)
   case multiplication(ArithmeticExpression, ArithmeticExpression)

This enumeration can store three kinds of arithmetic expressions: a plain number, the addition of two expressions, and the multiplication of two expressions. The addition and multiplication cases have associated values that are also arithmetic expressions—these associated values make it possible to nest expressions. For example, the expression (5 + 4) * 2 has a number on the right-hand side of the multiplication and another expression on the left-hand side of the multiplication. Because the data is nested, the enumeration used to store the data also needs to support nesting—this means the enumeration needs to be recursive. The code below shows the ArithmeticExpression recursive enumeration being created for (5 + 4) * 2:

let five = ArithmeticExpression.number(5)
let four = ArithmeticExpression.number(4)
let sum = ArithmeticExpression.addition(five, four)
let product = ArithmeticExpression.multiplication(sum, ArithmeticExpression.number(2))

A recursive function is a straightforward way to work with data that has a recursive structure. For example, here’s a function that evaluates an arithmetic expression:

func evaluate(_ expression: ArithmeticExpression) -> Int {
   switch expression {
   case let .number(value):
       return value
   case let .addition(left, right):
       return evaluate(left) + evaluate(right)
   case let .multiplication(left, right):
       return evaluate(left) * evaluate(right)
// Prints “18”

This function evaluates a plain number by simply returning the associated value. It evaluates an addition or multiplication by evaluating the expression on the left-hand side, evaluating the expression on the right-hand side, and then adding them or multiplying them.

Replacements for switch statement in Python?

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5629111/how-can-i-make-sql-case-sensitive-string-comparison-on-mysql 에서 참조


The default character set and collation are latin1 and latin1_swedish_ci, so nonbinary string comparisons are case insensitive by default. This means that if you search with col_name LIKE ‘a%’, you get all column values that start with A or a. To make this search case sensitive, make sure that one of the operands has a case sensitive or binary collation. For example, if you are comparing a column and a string that both have the latin1 character set, you can use the COLLATE operator to cause either operand to have the latin1_general_cs or latin1_bin collation:

col_name COLLATE latin1_general_cs LIKE 'a%'
col_name LIKE 'a%' COLLATE latin1_general_cs
col_name COLLATE latin1_bin LIKE 'a%'
col_name LIKE 'a%' COLLATE latin1_bin

If you want a column always to be treated in case-sensitive fashion, declare it with a case sensitive or binary collation.