original source : http://ditio.net/2007/08/09/how-to-create-wordpress-plugin-from-a-scratch/
WordPress blogs are getting more popular then ever, there are literally hundreds of new weblogs popping up everyday. However WordPress is not a new software, so I think it is about time to learn how to create decent plugins for it, and once you learn how to write plugins you will discover that this is not only fun but can be very profitable as well.
I want to show you how to write very simple WordPress (WP) plugin. General purpose behind every plugin is to enhance WP possibilities in some way or another, so I started to think: what kind of plugin will contain no more then 100 lines of code, (so someone who is new to WordPress API won’t get lost in tons of code) and will be somewhat useful at the same time.
I decided that together we will write plugin which will count search engine bots visits.
Let me explain shortly what I mean by “search engine bots”, every search engine has some kind of bot that is responsible for indexing pages on the Internet, and as you probably already know there is no other way of indexing pages, then visiting them via HTTP protocol. Basically that makes all bots virtual Internet users, the one thing that makes them different from real Web users is the fact that bots use other browsers then us.
For example Googlebot uses Web browser that is compatible with Firefox, but it’s name is actually “googlebot” and we can check that with $_SERVER[‘HTTP_USER_AGENT’] variable.
Knowing this info we will want to design our plugin in a way that, every time WordPress page is loaded our plugin will check this variable to find out if person which is currently viewing our site is bot or real person. If bot then script will increase bot visits count variable (which we will store in database).
That’s it. Nice little plugin. I know it maybe very easy for you to write such script, but our goal is actually not the script itself. Our goal is to understand how WordPress plugin API works, this is what is important not the code.
If I convinced you to reading further this article then great, I am confident you will enjoy it.
Let’s get started.
If you didn’t installed WP on your localhost or yet, then go get it at www.wordpress.org do not make a common mistake of thinking that you can understand everything by just reading this text, you will actually need to do the work.
First thing we need to know is where to put our plugin, WordPress programmers selected specific folder for all plugins, if you start browsing directory with your WP files you will find out by yourself that all plugins located here:
Note that it is not necessary to create new folder for your plugin, you can put your files straight into plugin directory, but I think it is good to do so only, if your plugin consists from one file.
We will use two files so let’s create directory and name it “bot”.
You maybe thinking if there will be more then one file in a directory how will WordPress know which file to use, which file should be started first?
This is a great question, with very simple answer: files which are treated by WP as main plugin files are those with specific info called: standard plugin information header. You won’t make your plugin work without this information, mainly because, WordPress will have no idea that your plugin exists, and it will not be listed at Plugin Management page, so you won’t be able to activate it.
My information header looks like this:
You are of course free to edit these information, but do not remove any line, they all need to stay within our file it is very important. If you wish to you can copy and paste these info to your file and save it as “bots.php” in our “bot” directory, it should look like this:
Now you can go to admin area, select plugins page, browse available plugins and you will find out that list of plugins already contains your plugin, more over it looks like it is ready to be activated.
However we know it actually do nothing, so we need to “teach” our plugin what to do and when. These is very simple thanks to “Plugin Hooks”.
Let me explain it. You can think of every Plugin Hook as an action, and in WP action can almost anything: publishing post, editing comment, loading header and so on. However all actions are predefined by WordPress programmers, so you can’t write whatever you want. For more info on this checkouthttp://codex.wordpress.org/Plugin_API/Action_Reference for complete list of actions.
When we finally choose an action that suits as best, we need to assign function to it, we do this by using add_action($predefined_plugin_hook, $our_function_name); command. Predefined plugin hook is one of the actions, while “function name” is function which we wrote, or which we will wrote in our case.
Enough talking it is time to write some code, let’s start with function, which will be responsible for creating additional table in our database and populating it with two records. In this table we will keep information about different bots and their visits number.
$table = $wpdb->prefix."bot_counter";
$structure = "CREATE TABLE $table (
id INT(9) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
bot_name VARCHAR(80) NOT NULL,
bot_mark VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
bot_visits INT(9) DEFAULT 0,
UNIQUE KEY id (id)
// Populate table
$wpdb->query("INSERT INTO $table(bot_name, bot_mark)
VALUES('Google Bot', 'googlebot')");
$wpdb->query("INSERT INTO $table(bot_name, bot_mark)
VALUES('Yahoo Slurp', 'yahoo')");
I admit, whole script can be written without using MySQL and it would be much better solution then creating additional table like we did, but again it is not about the script it is about learning WordPress API, and I thought: if you will want to write plugin by yourself later then you will be probably using MySQL, so I decided to show you how WP want us to do it.
About our function, it’s name can be whatever you want I choose bot_install, because this is what this function really do (installs our plugin), but you can name func1 as well, it is not how you name it, but rather how you assign it to certain Plugin Hook, however it is good practice to avoid function names that were already used by WordPress programmers, then try keeping your function names unique.
Earlier i talked about assigning function to certain action, so how to do it and which action choose?
Obviously we want action that will run once, possibly right after activating our plugin, we do not want to create new tables over and over again, so our best shot will be “activate” Plugin Hook, but be careful these one is a bit tricky.
All of WordPress actions are predefined, all except these one. Look at the code:
Like was said before first argument is Plugin Hook, it is let’s call it half predefined, what I mean by this is simply that first part ‘activate_’ is constant, but second part of argument is a path to script which contains activate function. We keep our install function in the same file as the rest of functions so we need to point to file we are editing right now.
Also note that you need to use relative path, WordPress knows that install file must be located somewhere in wp-content/plugins/ directory, so we only need to show him which file in these directory it really is.
Second argument is our function name, nothing more nothing less.
Inside our bot_insall function we use global variable $wpdb, it is object responsible for communication with database, of course we still can use old fashioned mysql_query() instead of $wpdb->query(), but let’s make these script like WordPress team wanted us to make it look.
I believe I do not have to comment on the rest of the code there are only three MySQL queries so I am confident you easily understand what these script do.
If we activate our plugin now, bot_install function will start, additional table will be created and some data will be added, finally our plugin can actually do something, besides being visible in admin area.
Now we will create function which will be responsible for counting bots visits:
$browser_name = $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'];
$bots = $wpdb->get_results("SELECT * FROM ".
foreach($bots as $bot)
SET bot_visits = bot_visits+1 WHERE id = ".$bot->id);
This is very simple as well, first we make $wpdb variable “visible” for our function by making it global. Then we select all data from table we created earlier and we loop thru results by using foreach. When it turns out that $browser_name, contains $bot->bot_mark value, then script makes query which increases bot_visits field value by one, then we brake foreach because it is impossible to have two bots using one browser.
When I first wrote these function I assigned it to wp-head Plugin Hook, it means that WordPress will start this function when header is loading, but then I decided to reassign it to wp-footer action because this function will only make simple operations in our database without even showing results to visitor, so I think you will agree with me on this one, that it is good idea to send page to client first and then call these function. It will actually save some time to our visitor which is always great
Almost everything is ready, new table can be created by our plugin, bots visits are counted now we want to see how many bots visited our blog, but we want these data to be visible only to blog admin and displayed in administration area.
Sounds like a lot of work? Actually it is NOT. WordPress programmers created set of Plugin Hooks that will allow us to add pages to admin area, this new pages will be automatically shown in admin panel in appropriate category which is selected by us .
First we need to write a function which will create whole layout for our new page at admin site, then we need to use add_option_page(…) function, but we have to add it within some kind of let’s call it “container”. What is ths container? Basically container is another function which has got set of add_option_page(…) commands within it.
Note that we are not limited to creating only one additional admin page, by using container we are able to create many pages in different categories, for example one in “users” category and another in “options” category. However we are writing quite small plugin so we will create only one additional page.
add_options_page("Bot Counter", "Bot Counter", 1,
Look at bot_menu function it includes bot-admin.php file which currently does not exists, but this is not important for now, we will create it a bit later.
More interesting then bot_menu is bot_admin_actions function – this is our container.
Whole code works like that: first add_action function is run with Plugin Hook admin_menu, so WordPress knows that something will be added to admin menu. What will be added? He have to check it by executing bot_admin_actions function, second parameter of add_action, bot_admin_function tells WordPress that he have to add to options page (add_option_page) new menu item named “Bot Counter” and when user will click these menu item then WordPress will have to get code for it from bot_menu function, simple isn’t it?
But in order to make it work we have to create bot-admin.php file, because bot_menu uses it, so let’s create this file and put some code into it:
<?php query("UPDATE ".$wpdb->prefix."bot_counter SET bot_visits = 0");?>
<div id="message" class="updated fade">
Bot Counter Stats <strong>Reseted</strong>.</div>
<h2>Bot Counter Admin</h2>
get_results("SELECT * FROM ".$wpdb->prefix."bot_counter");
foreach($results as $result)
echo $result->bot_name." : ";
<a href="?page=<?php echo $_GET['page']; ?>&bot-counter=reset">
Not much to talk about here, these script shows us how many times particular bot visited our website and at the end is link which allows us to reset stats. Notice that we are using <div id=”message” class=”updated fade”>…</div> and <div class=”wrap”>…</div> These makes our admin page look similar to other admin pages.
Also take a look at our <a> tag, we can submit forms and click URLs within our admin page, but we need to remember to always send ‘page’ parameter via GET (page=<?php echo $_GET[‘page’]; ?>), otherwise WordPress won’t display our admin page.
For more information on adding administration menu visithttp://codex.wordpress.org/Adding_Administration_Menus
That is pretty much it. Last thing we can do is to display bots visits count to people who are visiting our site, but it requires to edit templates, if we want to display bots stats in certain position like sidebar for example.
The best way to embed our stats into template is to write (in bots.php file) function which will display these stats, then all you need to add in WordPress template is or whatever you named your function..
My goal was to show you as much WordPress Plugins API features as possible, however if you didn’t found here answers to questions you had before reading this article then my best advice for you is to go to www.wordpress.com and read WP API documentation. I am confident that with knowledge you gained by reading these text you will have no problems with finding solutions and answers to all questions you have.