Extensions

Extensions add new functionality to an existing class, structure, enumeration, or protocol type. This includes the ability to extend types for which you do not have access to the original source code (known as retroactive modeling). 

Extensions in Swift can:

  • Add computed instance properties and computed type properties (stored property는 추가 할수 없다.)
  • Define instance methods and type methods
  • Provide new initializers
  • Define subscripts
  • Define and use new nested types
  • Make an existing type conform to a protocol

In Swift, you can even extend a protocol to provide implementations of its requirements or add additional functionality that conforming types can take advantage of. For more details, see Protocol Extensions.

NOTE

Extensions can add new functionality to a type, but they cannot override existing functionality.

Extension Syntax

Declare extensions with the extension keyword:

extension SomeType {
   // new functionality to add to SomeType goes here
}

An extension can extend an existing type to make it adopt one or more protocols. To add protocol conformance, you write the protocol names the same way as you write them for a class or structure:

extension SomeType: SomeProtocol, AnotherProtocol {
   // implementation of protocol requirements goes here
}

Adding protocol conformance in this way is described in Adding Protocol Conformance with an Extension.

An extension can be used to extend an existing generic type, as described in Extending a Generic Type. You can also extend a generic type to conditionally add functionality, as described in Extensions with a Generic Where Clause.

NOTE

If you define an extension to add new functionality to an existing type, the new functionality will be available on all existing instances of that type, even if they were created before the extension was defined

Computed Properties

Extensions can add computed instance properties and computed type properties to existing types. This example adds five computed instance properties to Swift’s built-in Double type, to provide basic support for working with distance units:

extension Double {
   var km: Double { return self * 1_000.0 }
   var m: Double { return self }
   var cm: Double { return self / 100.0 }
   var mm: Double { return self / 1_000.0 }
   var ft: Double { return self / 3.28084 }
}
let oneInch = 25.4.mm
print(“One inch is (oneInch) meters”)
// Prints “One inch is 0.0254 meters”
let threeFeet = 3.ft
print(“Three feet is (threeFeet) meters”)
// Prints “Three feet is 0.914399970739201 meters”

let aMarathon = 42.km + 195.m
print(“A marathon is (aMarathon) meters long”)
// Prints “A marathon is 42195.0 meters long”

NOTE

Extensions can add new computed properties, but they cannot add stored properties, or add property observers to existing properties.

Initializers

Extensions can add new initializers to existing types. 

Extensions can add new convenience initializers to a class, but they cannot add new designated initializers or deinitializers to a class. Designated initializers and deinitializers must always be provided by the original class implementation.

NOTE

If you use an extension to add an initializer to a value type that provides default values for all of its stored properties and does not define any custom initializers, you can call the default initializer and memberwise initializer for that value type from within your extension’s initializer.

This would not be the case if you had written the initializer as part of the value type’s original implementation, as described in Initializer Delegation for Value Types.

struct Size {
   var width = 0.0, height = 0.0
}
struct Point {
   var x = 0.0, y = 0.0
}
struct Rect {
   var origin = Point()
   var size = Size()
}

let defaultRect = Rect()
let memberwiseRect = Rect(origin: Point(x: 2.0, y: 2.0),
                         size: Size(width: 5.0, height: 5.0))

You can extend the Rect structure to provide an additional initializer that takes a specific center point and size:

extension Rect {
   init(center: Point, size: Size) {
       let originX = center.x – (size.width / 2)
       let originY = center.y – (size.height / 2)
       self.init(origin: Point(x: originX, y: originY), size: size)
   }
}

This new initializer starts by calculating an appropriate origin point based on the provided center point and size value. The initializer then calls the structure’s automatic memberwise initializer init(origin:size:), which stores the new origin and size values in the appropriate properties:

let centerRect = Rect(center: Point(x: 4.0, y: 4.0),
                     size: Size(width: 3.0, height: 3.0))
// centerRect’s origin is (2.5, 2.5) and its size is (3.0, 3.0)

Methods

Extensions can add new instance methods and type methods to existing types. The following example adds a new instance method called repetitions to the Int type:

extension Int {
   func repetitions(task: () -> Void) {

      // 0과 self사이의 정수를 인덱스로 순환

      // 참고) https://stackoverflow.com/a/26083896

       for _ in 0..<self {
           task()
       }
   }
}

3.repetitions {
   print(“Hello!”)
}
// Hello!
// Hello!
// Hello!

Mutating Instance Methods

(참고사항 tumblr #swift #mutating #enum: 

Structures and enumerations are value types. By default, the properties of a value type cannot be modified from within its instance methods.)

Instance methods added with an extension can also modify (or mutate) the instance itself. Structure and enumeration methods that modify self or its properties must mark the instance method as mutating, just like mutating methods from an original implementation.

extension Int {
   mutating func square() {
       self = self * self
   }
}
var someInt = 3
someInt.square()
// someInt is now 9

Subscripts

Extensions can add new subscripts to an existing type. 

123456789[0] returns 9

123456789[1] returns 8

extension Int {
   subscript(digitIndex: Int) -> Int {
       var decimalBase = 1
       for _ in 0..<digitIndex {
           decimalBase *= 10
       }
       return (self / decimalBase) % 10
   }
}
746381295[0]
// returns 5
746381295[1]
// returns 9
746381295[2]
// returns 2
746381295[8]
// returns 7

746381295[9]
// returns 0, as if you had requested:
0746381295[9]

Nested Types

Extensions can add new nested types to existing classes, structures, and enumerations:

extension Int {
   enum Kind {
       case negative, zero, positive
   }
   var kind: Kind {
       switch self {
       case 0:
           return .zero
       case let x where x > 0:
           return .positive
       default:
           return .negative
       }
   }
}

func printIntegerKinds(_ numbers: [Int]) {
   for number in numbers {
       switch number.kind {
       case .negative:
           print(“- ”, terminator: “”)
       case .zero:
           print(“0 ”, terminator: “”)
       case .positive:
           print(“+ ”, terminator: “”)
       }
   }
   print(“”)
}
printIntegerKinds([3, 19, -27, 0, -6, 0, 7])
// Prints “+ + – 0 – 0 + ”

NOTE

number.kind is already known to be of type Int.Kind. Because of this, all of the Int.Kind case values can be written in shorthand form inside the switch statement, such as .negative rather than Int.Kind.negative

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